Tourism demand index and its correlation with standard of living in EU countries

Main Article Content

Anetta Majchrzak-Jaszczyk

Słowa kluczowe : tourism demand, ranking, index, correlation, outbound, inbound, trips

Tourism is one of the fastest growing industries in the world. This study proposes construction of tourism demand index and direct application of this index to rank chosen countries. The second aim is to analyze if the place in ranking is correlated with citizens’ standard of living.
Six measures of tourism demand for 27 EU countries were collected from Eurostat for the year 2019. As a standard of living measure, Human Development Index (HDI) was taken. As a result, high and positive correlation between almost all types of tourism demand indexes and HDI was noticed. The place of a particular country in the ranking depends on the kind of tourism demand measure, which was used. The method of constructing tourism demand index proposed in the article can be used for other group of countries or regions.

Article Details

Jak cytować
Majchrzak-Jaszczyk, A. (2022). Tourism demand index and its correlation with standard of living in EU countries. Turystyka I Rozwój Regionalny, (17), 69–80.

Baggio, R. (2019). Measuring tourism: methods, indicators, and needs. In: C., Cooper, E., Fayos-Sola (ed.). The Future of Tourism: Innovation and Sustainability. Springer, Cham, p. 255-269. DOI: (Crossref)

Bernini, C., Cracolici, M.F. (2016). Is participation in the tourism market an opportunity for everyone? Some evidence from Italy. Tourism Economics 22 (1), p. 57-79. DOI: te.2014.0409 (Crossref)

Bernini, C., Ruizhe, F. (2021). Living standard and Chinese tourism participation. International Journal of Tourism Research 23 (3), p. 287-300. DOI: (Crossref)

Cheng, K.M. (2012). Tourism demand in Hong Kong: income, prices, and visa restrictions. Current Issues in Tourism 15 (3), p. 167-181. DOI: (Crossref)

Fredman, P., Wikstrôm, D. (2018). Income elasticity of demand for tourism at Fulufjâllet National Park. Tourism Economics 24 (1), p. 51-63. DOI: (Crossref)

Human Development Index. Available online: (access: 15.05.2022).

Li, H., Hu, M., Li, G. (2020). Forecasting tourism demand with multisource big data. Annals of Tourism Research 83. DOI: https://doi.Org/10.1016/j.annals.2020.102912 (Crossref)

Jiao, X., Chen, J.L., Li, G. (2021). Forecasting tourism demand: Developing a general nesting spatiotemporal model. Annals of Tourism Research 90. DOI: 10.1016/j.annals.2021.103277 (Crossref)

Menegaki, A., Tiwari, A., Agiomirgianakis, G. (2020). Asymmetries in European inbound and outbound tourism: Normal, luxury or inferior good? Fresh evidence from a quantile regression. European Journal of Tourism Research 25, 2508. DOI: (Crossref)

Meo, M.S., Chowdhury, M.A.F., Shaikh, G.M., Ali, M., Masood, S.S. (2018). Asymmetric impact of oil prices, exchange rate, and inflation on tourism demand in Pakistan: new evidence from nonlinear ARDL. Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research 23 (4), p. 408-422. DOI: https://d0i.0rg/l 0.1080/10941665.2018.1445652 (Crossref)

Methodological Manual for Tourism Statistics. Version 3.1. Available online: (access: 03.01.2022).

Nundy, S., Kakar, A., Bhutta, Z.A. (2022). The Status of Biomedical Research in Some Developing Countries. In: How to Practice Academic Medicine and Publish from Developing Countries? A Practical Guide. Singapore: Springer, p. 47-62. DOI: (Crossref)

Rossellô-Nadal, J., Jianan, H. (2020). Tourist arrivals versus tourist expenditures in modelling tourism demand. Tourism Economics 26 (8), p. 1311-1326. DOI: 10.1177%2F1354816619867810 (Crossref)

Rudez Nemec, H. (2018). The Relationship between Income and Tourism Demand: Old Findings and New Research. Academica Turistica-Tourism and Innovation Journal 11(1), 67-72. DOI: https:// (Crossref)

Sakyi-Nyarko, C., Ahmad, A.H., Green, C.J. (2022). The role of financial inclusion in improving household well-being. Journal of International Development, p. 1-27 Downloaded from: (access: 22.05.2022). DOI: jid.3661 (Crossref)

Shafiullah, M., Okafor, L.E., Khalid, U. (2019). Determinants of international tourism demand: Evidence from Australian states and territories. Tourism Economics 25 (2), p. 274-296. DOI: https://doi. org/10.1177%2F1354816618800642 (Crossref)

Smeral, E. (2003). A Structural View of Tourism Growth. Tourism Economics 9 (1), p. 77-93. DOI: (Crossref)

Song, H., Li, G. (2008). Tourism demand modelling and forecasting - A review of recent research. Tourism Management 29 (2), p. 203-220. DOI: https://doi.Org/10.1016/j.tourman.2007.07.016 (Crossref)

Song, H., Li, G., Witt ,S.F., Fei, B. (2010). Tourism demand modelling and forecasting: how should demand be measured?. Tourism Economics 16 (1), p. 63-81. DOI: 10.5367%2F000000010790872213 (Crossref)

Song, H., Qiu, R.T., Park, J. (2019). A review of research on tourism demand forecasting: Launching the Annals of Tourism Research Curated Collection on tourism demand forecasting. Annals of Tourism Research 75, p. 338-362. DOI: https://doi.Org/10.1016/j.annals.2018.12.001 (Crossref)

Travel & Tourism Benchmarking Research Trends (2019). Available online: https://wttc.0rg/Portals/O/ Documents/Reports/2019/Benchmarking%20Trends%20Report%202019.pdf?ver=2021-02-25-182807-540 (access: 16.01.2022).

Travel and Tourism Economic Impact (2021). Available online: https://wttc.0rg/Portals/O/Documents/ Reports/2021/Global%20Economic%20lmpact%20and%20Trends%202021.pdf (access: 16.01.2022).



Download data is not yet available.
Rekomendowane teksty
Podobne artykuły

Możesz również Rozpocznij zaawansowane wyszukiwanie podobieństw dla tego artykułu.